Project description
The emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) is one of the main challenges for TB control worldwide. Vietnam is among the 22 countries with highest TB burden in the world. Results from the recent National TB Drug Resistance survey showed that MDR-TB accounted for 3% among new cases and 19% in retreated cases. Even though drug susceptibility testing (DST) is essential for proper treatment, in most high-burden setting including Vietnam, capacity for diagnosis of drug resistant TB is limited. The method used for DST is conventional culture, which takes many weeks to get results and only limited at national referent hospitals due to its high cost, complexity and labour intensiveness.
The diagnosis of TB patients is mostly  based  on  clinical  symptoms  and acid  fast  bacillus  (AFB) smear  microscopy,  a  test  that  cannot distinguish  NTM  infection  from  M.  tuberculosis infection.  This problem can lead to diagnosis misclassification, especially for patients with pulmonary TB-like symptoms caused by NTM. Patients can be, thus, miss-diagnosed as having pulmonary TB.  Since pulmonary manifestations account for 94% of cases of NTM diseases, a large proportion of HIV patients with NTM infection may get treatments with anti-tuberculosis regimens.
The present project aims applying DNA chip technology for developing diagnostic kits, first for the rapid detection of drug resistant tuberculosis, and second for the identification of the most commonly found NTM species responsible for disease manifestations in immuno-compromised patients. Since a microarray can contain tens of thousands of probes, an array experiment can accomplish many genetic tests in parallel. Therefore it is possible to develop a single chip for the identification of M. tuberculosis and NTM species and for the determination of drug resistant profile of the clinical MTB isolates.

PI : NGUYEN Thi Van Anh, NIHE                                             
Co - PI : Anne-Laure BANULS, IRD                                            
NGUYEN Thi Ngoc Anh, NIHE                                       
Marc CHOISY, IRD                                 
Jean-Christophe AVARRE, IRD                                       
Sylvain GODREUIL, INSERM U1058                                                                                      
NGUYEN Quang Huy, USTH PhD student